19/11 - Esko Turunen, PhD*

A Paraconsistent Version of Pavelka's Fuzzy Logic

In 1979 Jan Pavelka introduced a very general framework to deal with many valued logics. Pavelka's  idea was to process Zadeh's Fuzzy Sets such that theories, rules of inference, proofs as well as  tautologies may be only partial, i.e. fuzzy. Pavelka defined all his concepts in complete residuated lattices. The main issue was to study the circumstances under which the fuzzy semantic consequence operation and fuzzy syntactic operation coincide; such a property is called Pavelka style completeness.  Pavelka solved the problem in the special case that the set of truth values is the Lukasiewicz sturucure, i.e. the real unit interval equipped with standard MV-structure. The present author has recently proved that Pavelka style completeness holds if, and only if the set of truth values is a complete MV-algebra. Thus, if in particular ,the set M of truth values is a certain collection of 2x2-matrices equipped with suitable operations, then M is a complete MV-algebra. In fact, the set M extends Belnap's four valued para consistent logic. Such an approach results a complete many-valued logic that behaves consistently when looking from outside: the structure in related to Lukasiewicz logic which is a consistent logic. However, looking the logic from inside, i.e. a single 2x2-matrix, para consistency steps in. Truth and falsehood are not opposites of each other, and also contradictions and lack of knowledge is involved.

*Tampere University of Technology (Tampere, Finland)


12/11 - Francesc Esteva* & Lluis Godo*

On paraconsistent fuzzy logics

Paraconsistent logics are specially tailored to deal with inconsistency, while fuzzy logics primarily deal with graded truth and vagueness. Aiming at studying logics that can handle inconsistency and graded truth at once, this talk will report about recent investigations on how a notion of paraconsistent fuzzy logic can be cast within the framework of the so-called logics of formal inconsistency (LFIs).

As in classical logic, it is clear that the notion of truth-preserving deduction commonly used in systems of mathematical fuzzy logic is incompatible with any form of paraconsistency. However, in the first part of the seminar we will show that, instead, some degree-preserving fuzzy logics exhibit interesting paraconsistency features. We will also consider expansions of these logics with additional negation connectives and study their paraconsistency properties as LFIs.

In the second part of the seminar, we will address a kind of converse problem, namely how to extend a given fuzzy logic with a new “consistency” operator in the style of the LFIs. We will introduce a set of postulates for this type of operators over the corresponding algebras, leading to the definition and axiomatization of a family of logics, expansions of MTL, whose degree-preserving counterpart are paraconsistent and moreover LFIs.
In the third and final part of the seminar, we will talk about some remarks on ongoing work on the study on intermediate paraconsistent fuzzy logics between the truth-preserving and degree-preserving logics.
*IIIA - CSIC, Barcelona, Spain


05/11 - Gabriele Pulcini

A Uniform Setting for Classical, Non-Monotonic and Paraconsistent Logic

In this talk, we propose a uniform syntactical framework encompassing classical, non monotonic and paraconsistent logic. Such a uniform framework is obtained by means of the control sets logical device. Control sets leave the underlying syntax unchanged, while affecting the very combinatorial structure of sequents and proofs. Moreover, we prove the cut-elimination theorem for a version of controlled propositional classical logic, i.e. the sequent calculus for classical propositional logic to which a control sets system is applied. Our goals are two-folds: i) to overcome the conceptual gap between classical and non-classical logics; ii) to give, in particular, a new (positive) account of paraconsistency (and non-monotonicity) in terms of concurrency.